You will learn much about our Jewish friends and their religious and political history. You will learn about their culture, dress, traditions, and beliefs. Much of it, you will learn piece by piece as we travel from place to place in Israel. You will come to appreciate them and see how members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints feel a deep connection with them. Here is a great article that will help introduce you the similarities and differences between our faiths:
You will also encounter many Jewish objects and rituals on our trip and this link has a great summary of some of them:
The most common objects of the Jewish Faith that you will see most often are the kippah, tallit, and mezuzah. These links will introduce you to them.
Remember that are many sects in Judaism, from very Orthodox to very liberal, with large differences between them in their belief and practice.